NAVET-ASFVAC, developed by the Navetco Central Veterinary Medicine Company and AVAC ASF LIVE, produced by the AVAC Vietnam Joint Stock Company have become the world’s first commercial vaccines against ASF.
Both companies worked with specialized agencies and other collaborators to evaluate the vaccines, noted a publication from the US Swine Health Information Center (SHIC) on the development.
The SHIC review, citing sources at Vietnam’s Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, outlined how the vaccines will be available for purchase by Vietnamese farmers and will not be provided by the government.
“The two vaccines have differing rules for use surrounding the age of piglets at administration and duration of immunity.”
The NAVET vaccine should be administered to piglets between 8 to 10 weeks of age, while the AVAC vaccine is recommended to be given to piglets at a younger age, specifically over four weeks of age.
“It's essential for farmers to adhere to these guidelines to ensure the vaccines' optimal effectiveness and protection against ASF for their pig herds.”
Rigorous safety and potency trials were conducted for each vaccine to ensure the highest quality standards, noted the SHIC report.
Duration of immunity
The duration of immunity provided by each vaccine varies, said the US organization.
“NAVET vaccine specifies a duration of immunity lasting for six months, whereas AVAC vaccine offers immunity for four months. In both cases, the immunity has been determined by measuring the duration of antibodies through ELISA assay.”
Monitoring the levels of antibodies helps assess the effectiveness and persistence of the immune response elicited by the vaccines, said SHIC.
A plan is required to document and assess the effectiveness of the two vaccines in real-world scenarios, it added.
“Given the estimated pig population in Vietnam of 2.2 million sows and a total pig population of approximately 28.6 million, rough estimates suggest that the potential domestic market for these vaccines could exceed 40 million doses per year, depending on the specific vaccine being considered. Indeed, the substantial demand for vaccines in Vietnam presents a significant opportunity for the two companies to play a pivotal role in mitigating the impact of the disease on the swine population,” commented the swine health experts.
ASF outbreaks in Europe
But the scope for the two products may extend far beyond Vietnam.
In July, 13 European countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Italy, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia, and Ukraine reported 740 ASF outbreaks in domestic pigs through the EU Animal Information System, an almost six times increase since the prior month.
Vietnam’s agriculture ministry has reportedly requested the two vaccine producing companies to devise proposals around production for both domestic sales and export.